Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology Volume 2: Issue 1, Article 10, 2021. Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) has been reported to develop during endurance events such as triathlons and marathons. As these events become more popular, the incidence of developing EAH also increases. The development of EAH is commonly associated with the overconsumption of hypotonic fluids such as water and tends to be more prevalent in females. There is also evidence to suggest the inappropriate secretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) leading to water retention may predispose an individual for developing EAH, especially when coupled with the overconsumption of fluids. Recent research suggests females are associated with more risk factors such as slower pace times and compliance with hydration. Females may also be more at risk because they have a lower total body water percentage and should not be consuming as much fluid as male athletes. Other individual differences that could influence EAH onset is the presence of genetic polymorphisms associated with the onset of EAH, the AVP and Oxytocin Receptor (OXTR) gene. The purpose of this review is to summarize the complicated factors underlying EAH in relation to inappropriate AVP secretion and water retention, and individual differences based on sex and genetics. In an effort to reduce the risk of developing EAH, we identified a series of biomarkers and possible genetic polymorphisms that could be used in the creation of an entrée of testing procedures to identify those at greatest risk for developing EAH.
Stehman, Michelle and Maris, Stephen A.
"The onset of Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia and Individual Differences in Inappropriate Arginine Vasopressin Excretion: A Review of Proposed Mechanisms,"
Topics in Exercise Science and Kinesiology: Vol. 2
, Article 10.
Available at: https://digitalscholarship.unlv.edu/scholarship_kin/vol2/iss1/10
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