Document Type



The financial crisis that erupted in 2007 revealed a major gap in the management systems of government and business. For the most part, governments focused on revenue growth, productivity, cost control and quality. There were many interrelated factors involved with the failures but two in particular stand out in my mind: a failure to explicitly account for risk when formulating organizational strategies and a failure to monitor and manage the risks that they had identified and assumed. Organizations face many different types of risk but often they can be categorized into three types based upon their predictability, controllability and management. Perhaps, most important to consider is the magnitude of the risk’s consequences to the organization and the community served. For that reason, it is important for public managers to be aware of three levels of risk and how to manage them. Level 1, the lowest category, encompasses routine operational and compliance risks. Level 2, the middle category, represents strategy risks. Level 3 represents unknown, unknown risks.


Financial institutions – Law and legislation; Recessions; Risk management; Strategic planning; Trade regulation


Business Administration, Management, and Operations | Organizational Behavior and Theory | Organizational Communication | Policy Design, Analysis, and Evaluation | Public Administration | Strategic Management Policy

Search your library