Liquid Nitrogen Spray Cryotherapy in Treatment of Barrett's Esophagus, Where Do We Stand? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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Diseases of the Esophagus





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Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is the preferred treatment option for Barrett's esophagus (BE) to achieve complete eradication (CE) of dysplasia (D), and intestinal metaplasia (IM). Cryotherapy, using liquid nitrogen (LNC), is a cold-induced tissue-injury technique option for the ablation of BE. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the overall efficacy and safety of LNC in the treatment of BE. We conducted a search of multiple electronic databases and conference proceedings from inception through June 2018. The primary outcome was to estimate the pooled rates of CE-IM, CE-D, and CE-HGD. The secondary outcome was to estimate the risk of adverse events and recurrence of disease after LNC. Nine studies reported 386 patients who were treated with LNC. The pooled rate of CE-IM was 56.5% (95% CI 48.5–64.2, I2 = 47), pooled rate of CE-D was 83.5% (95% CI 78.3–87.7, I2 = 22.8), and pooled rate of CE-HGD was 86.5% (95% CI 64.4–95.8, I2 = 88.1). Rate of adverse events was 4.7%, and the risk of BE recurrence was 12.7%. On subgroup analysis, the pooled rate of CE-IM with LNC in patients who failed RFA was 58.4% (95% CI 47.2–68.8, I2 = 32.5), and the pooled rate of CE-D in the same population was 81.9% (95% CI 72.5–88.6, I2 = 5.9). CE-D rates with LNC are comparable to RFA while CE-IM rates appear to be lower than the rates achievable with RFA. CE-IM rate in RFA failed patients is 58.4% and thus LNC is a rescue option to consider in this population.


Barrett’s esophagus; Cryotherapy; Radiofrequency ablation


Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment | Digestive System Diseases



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