Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal


Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences > Social Sciences > Criminal Justice


March 2, 2021


July 19, 2021


August 13, 2021


Lisa Ly1*

Author Affiliations

1Department of Criminal Justice, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

Corresponding Author

*Lisa Ly, lyl2@unlv.nevada.edu

Corresponding Author ORCID iD


Author Contributions

LL: Contributed conceptualization, data collection, drafting of paper, formal analysis, methodology, and editing of manuscript.

Data Availability Statement

The author confirms that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declares that no conflicts of interest exist.

Ethical Considerations

Given that this project did not involve human or animal subjects, no IRB or IACUC approval was needed. No data presented in this paper are derived from participants and all program elements are publicly shared.


No funding was used to conduct this research.


Racial profiling has become a prominent issue in modern policing today. Instead of being based on individual suspicion, racial profiling embodies a belief that people of color are continuously singled out by the police for scrutiny and harassment. Policies and procedures make the Black community vulnerable to police discrimination and racial profiling. Floyd et al. v. City of New York et al. (2013) declared that the New York Police Department’s (NYPD) practice of stop-and-frisk was racially profiling Black civilians. This study sought (1) to determine if the NYPD post-Floyd is still engaging in racial profiling towards Black civilians; and (2) to evaluate the relationship between race and the number of stops, frisks, and arrests with the T-test. Based on the data released by the NYPD from 2011 to 2015 and 2019 (N=1,492,295), results indicated that the NYPD is engaging in racial profiling towards Black civilians post-Floyd and that there is a relationship between race and the number of stops, frisks, and arrests between Black and White civilians. The results contribute to a wider research consensus that racial profiling and discrimination are a presence in police practices in the United States.


stop-and-frisk, racial profiling, New York City

Submission Type

Thesis-based research article