Spectra Undergraduate Research Journal


Health & Natural Sciences & Engineering > Health Sciences > Public Health


December 15, 2021


February 18, 2022


February 28, 2022


Raisa Kabir (RK)1* & Sayeda Tazim Zaidi (STZ)2*

Author Affiliations

1Department of Kinesiology and Nutrition, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV

2School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV

Corresponding Author

*Raisa Kabir, kabir@unlv.nevada.edu

*Sayeda Tazim Zaidi, zaidis1@unlv.nevada.edu

Corresponding Author ORCID iD

*Raisa Kabir, https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5463-279X

*Sayeda Tazim Zaidi, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8757-6402

Author Contributions

RK: Contributed conceptualization, source curation, data collection, drafting of paper, formal analysis, methodology, writing of the original draft, and reviewing and editing of the manuscript.

STZ: Contributed source curation, data collection, drafting of paper, formal analysis, methodology, writing of the original draft, and reviewing and editing of the manuscript.

Data Availability Statement

The study did not collect any primary data. All secondary articles are available through the UNLV University Libraries, PubMed Central, PsychINFO, PsychArticles, and CINAHL.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Considerations

Given that this project did not involve human or animal subjects, no IRB or IACUC approval was needed.


This research was given a small stipend from National Delta Omega Chapters to present the initial findings at the American Public Health Association in October 2021. No other funding was given at this time for this project.


Black, Indigenous, and People of Color (BIPOC) from stigmatized and marginalized communities face implicit bias in medicine. Implicit biases are unconscious attitudes and internalized discrimination developed through repeated practices based on stereotypes from a foundation of systematic racism. In clinical settings, it impacts individuals’ healthcare experience and treatment outcomes. This study aimed to characterize and address implicit bias among healthcare providers toward BIPOC patients in clinical settings. A literature search in MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, PsyArticles, PsycINFO from EBSCO databases was conducted to include all peer-reviewed studies (2012-2021) about implicit bias toward BIPOC. Most healthcare providers have some form of implicit bias-positive attitudes toward Whites and negative attitudes toward BIPOC which affects treatment decisions and overall quality of care they receive. BIPOC patients are likely to be prescribed a lower dosage of medication instead of opioid analgesics for both acute and chronic pain despite age, gender, or genetic factors. Structural and social factors that impact access to healthcare include the patient's sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, economic/employment stability, access to higher education, and geographic access to healthcare facilities. Future studies need to employ rigorous methods to examine the relationship between implicit bias and healthcare outcomes. Interventions targeting implicit attitudes among health care professionals are needed to reduce health disparities and improve the overall clinical care of BIPOC patients. Educational initiatives, reformed policies/practices, and new research are needed. Acknowledging racial/ethnic, and cultural bias in clinical settings minimizes implicit bias and reduces negative health care experiences for BIPOC.


Implicit bias, racial bias, BIPOC patients, clinical, United States

Submission Type

Primary review article