Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences

First Committee Member

Gabriele Wulf

Second Committee Member

John Young

Third Committee Member

Daniel Young

Fourth Committee Member

Antonio Santo

Number of Pages



The positive effects of enhanced expectancies on motor performance and learning have been demonstrated by numerous studies. A more recent study by Stoate, Wulf, and Lewthwaite (2012) showed than enhancing one's expectancy by giving positive feedback increased movement efficiency and decreased oxygen consumption in experienced runners during a 20 minute running test at 75% of max oxygen consumption, compared to those who received no feedback. The purpose of the present study was to test if enhancing expectancies can improve movement efficiency (i.e., reduce oxygen consumption) during a sub-maximal exercise test. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups, enhanced expectancy or control. All participants completed four 3-minute modified step tests at a cadence of 24 steps per minute. During the step tests and rest periods, heart rate and oxygen consumption were recorded. The enhanced expectancy group receives positive feedback about their movement efficiency after each trial, while the control group received no feedback. Each participant was provided with a five minute rest period between trials. Rate of perceived exertion and were also recorded for each participant. Day two of testing consisted of two 3-minute modified step tests for each participant. During day two no feedback was given to either group to observe if the effects of the positive feedback from day one carry to the post-test. No significant group differences were found for any of the dependent variables. Possible reasons for the null effects are discussed.


Feedback (Psychology); Human mechanics; Modified step test; Oxygen consumption; Oxygen in the body; Performance; Positive feedback; Running


Exercise Science | Kinesiology | Psychology of Movement

File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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