Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Educational Leadership

First Committee Member

Robert S. McCord

Second Committee Member

James R. Crawford

Third Committee Member

James Hager

Fourth Committee Member

Shaoan Zhang

Number of Pages



For over 100 years, retention has been an intervention used with students who are not performing at expected levels. Despite the lack of evidence that retention is an effective means of improving academic outcomes, retention continues to be used today. Response to Intervention (RTI) is a strategy to provide support to struggling students in an effort to increase their academic performance, with the caveat that students who do not respond to interventions are candidates for special education evaluation. With RTI, data are generated. The impetus for the creation of the RTI model was its use for identifying students who may have disabilities; the school in this study used these data when it engaged in retention decision making.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of RTI data on teachers' and principals' decision making about retention and the impact of RTI data on instructional decision making for students who may be retained. This qualitative case study utilized a survey and interviews K-3 teachers and the student intervention team. These data provided insight into retention decision making and the decision making for instruction for students who may be retained. RTI data were found to have three major impacts on teachers' decision making, two impacts on the principal's decision making, and one impact on instructional decision making.


Decision making; Elementary schools; Grade repetition; Grade retention; Response to intervention; RTI; Slow learning children; Special education



File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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