Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



First Committee Member

Barbara St. Pierre Schneider

Second Committee Member

Jennifer Kawi

Third Committee Member

Susan Kowalski

Fourth Committee Member

Sue Shuerman

Number of Pages




The majority of faculty-student interactions are at low cognitive levels during nursing clinical post conference (CPC), a time often utilized for reflective thinking. Strategies have been implemented to promote or even teach reflection, but the level of reflection or impact of the intervention in nursing, such as the relationship to student attributes or clinical reasoning, is often not evaluated.

Specific Aims

The specific aims of this study are to (a) test the effect of a reflection education intervention on the baccalaureate students' level of reflection during online CPC, (b) examine the relationship between student attributes and level of reflection, and (c) examine the relationship between clinical reasoning and level of reflection.


A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent comparison group design was utilized, while up to six weeks of asynchronous online CPC was conducted during acute care clinical courses with three levels of students in a baccalaureate nursing program in Southern California.

Major Results

Prior health care experience was a predictor of level of reflection (r = 0.37, p = 0.04). Level of reflection was higher if participants had prior health care experience or a prior clinical failure (t = 2.98, p < 0.01). Level of reflection was higher if the participants were first year instead of second and third year (t = 2.97, p < 0.01).


There are three novel findings of this study. Prior health care experience predicts level of reflection in baccalaureate nursing students. Baccalaureate nursing students' level of reflection is higher if they had prior health care experience or a prior clinical failure. First year baccalaureate nursing students' level of reflection is higher than combined second and third year nursing students' level of reflection.


Clinical; Education; Critical thinking; Nursing students; Post-conference; Reflective; Reflective learning


Education | Nursing

File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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