Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Chemistry

First Committee Member

Spencer M. Steinberg, Chair

Second Committee Member

Thomas Hartmann

Third Committee Member

Longzhou Ma

Fourth Committee Member

Dennis W. Lindle

Fifth Committee Member

Clemens Heske

Graduate Faculty Representative

Andrew Cornelius

Number of Pages



This thesis concerns characterization of synthetic manganese oxides belonging to mineral phases known as Birnessite and Cryptomelane. Presented here are the results of an experiment designed to examine the influence of sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate ions on the reduction of potassium permanganate under acidic conditions at room temperature to produce Birnessite and Cryptomelane. The experiments used KMnO4 as the source of Mn and the resulting Birnessite and Cryptomelane precipitates were washed with 18 Mn/cm NANOpure water at the end of syntheses. Several state-of-the-art solid state techniques were used to characterize the Mn-based oxide mineral phases. Based on the literature review, our prior research, and solid state characterization of the final products, some correlations between the reactions and the resulting mineral phases that were formed have been explored in the discussion section. (Refer to PDF file for exact formulas.)


Birnessite; Cryptomelane; Manganese oxides; Nanostructured materials; potassium permanganate; Artificial minerals


Chemistry | Inorganic Chemistry

File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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