Award Date

Spring 5-2014

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)


Physical Therapy

Advisor 1

Robbin Hickman

First Committee Member

Merrill Landers

Second Committee Member

Kai-Yu Ho

Number of Pages



Background: Psychosocial aspects of balance including self-perception, behaviors, and experiences, have been found to contribute to activity limitations and participation restrictions in adults. Clinical tools have been established to measure how adults feel about their own balance and the extent to which fear of falling and other related characteristics interfere with participation. There are no clinical tools presently available to explore these relationships and quantify the extent to which they interfere with activity and participation in children.

Purpose: To develop and test reliability and validity of a tool to evaluate balance self-perception in a pediatric population.

Participants: This sample of convenience of children (n=12), aged eight-14 years (mean = 10.17±2.08) included children with typical development (n=11) and a child diagnosed with Autism and age appropriate motor skills (n=1).

Methods: A multidisciplinary panel of experts reviewed the Pediatric Balance Perception Battery (PBPB) for face and content validity. The finalized PBPB contained five main sections: balance confidence, fear of falling, consequences of falling, avoidance behavior, and fall catastrophizing. Test-retest reliability was determined by comparing the PBPB scores between two measurements that were performed approximately seven days apart. Construct validity was assessed by associating the PBPB with measures of 1) self-assessment of quality of life, 2) performance-based balance assessment, 3) endurance, and 4) activity level using Spearman's Rank Correlations.

Results: Face and content validity of the PBPB were supported by expert and stakeholder panelists. The PBPB had poor to moderate test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.27 - 0.69). Sections of the PBPB were significantly correlated with the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Short Form 15 Generic Core Scales (PedQL-SF15), the Pediatric Balance Scale (PBS), and two measures of activity level. Average time to administer the PBPB was 8.65 minutes.

Limitations: The small size and homogeneity of the present sample may limit the generalizability of findings.

Conclusion: The current configuration of the PBPB questionnaire demonstrated acceptable face and content validity in children ages seven to 15 years. Poor to moderate test-retest reliability was found. Sections of the PBPB revealed significant evidence of construct validity with self-assessment of quality of life, performance-based balance assessment, and activity level. However, no evidence was found to support the construct validity of the PBPB in the remaining measures. Future large-scale research would be needed to determine the validity and reliability of this study cohort.


Pediatrics; Physiotherapy; Psychology of Movement


Physical Therapy

File Format


File Size

411 Kb

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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