Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)


Physical Therapy

Advisor 1

Catherine Turner

First Committee Member

Merrill Landers

Second Committee Member

Daniel Young

Number of Pages



Background: To execute the aesthetic demands of dance while utilizing proper biomechanical body position, a dancer needs the ability to maintain lumbopelvic stability, external rotation of the femur, and alignment of the knee, foot, and ankle. The ability to identify technique deficits can guide preventative programs that may reduce injury risk and frequency. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate intra- and inter-rater reliability of the ballet-based Dance Technique Screening Instrument by physical therapists (PTs) and student PTs (SPTs) with prior dance medicine or dance experience. Subjects: Twenty-eight adult subjects served as raters which included licensed PTs and current SPTs. Ten pre-professional dancers were recruited and scored by the raters. Methods: Ten pre-professional dancers were recorded on video in the sagittal and frontal planes while performing 4 dance sequences: i) 2nd position grand plié; ii) développé à la seconde; iii) pressure relevé balance; and iv) jumps in 1st position. Dance videos and electronic versions of the demographics and scoring forms were administered to raters through a secure online survey. Raters reviewed a training video prior to scoring the 10-dancers. Raters were asked to repeat their assessments 1-2 weeks later. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated for All-raters, PTs, and SPTs for total and independent dance sequence scores. Results: Twenty-eight raters assessed the videos one time. The ICC2,1k (CI95) for inter-rater reliability was 0.96 (CI95=0.96-0.99) (combined groups), with PTs and SPTs displaying similar values. Eighteen of the 28 raters (11 PTs, 7 SPTs) repeated the video analysis two weeks later. Intra-rater reliability was ICC3,1=0.78 (CI95=0.72-0.83) with PTs ICC3,1=0.81 and SPTs ICC3,1=0.70. Conclusions: Reliability was high for All-raters. SPTs were as reliable as PTs in inter-rater comparisons; however, PTs exhibited higher intra-rater reliability compared to SPTs. These results provide evidence for the reliability of a standardized testing instrument to conduct dance technique assessment. The ability to reliably identify technique deficits can guide preventative programs that may reduce injury risk.


Dance; Dance Technique; Movement Screen; Physical Therapist; Student Physical Therapist; Injury Prevention


Medicine and Health Sciences | Physical Therapy | Rehabilitation and Therapy

File Format


File Size

973 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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