Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Sport and Leisure Service Management


Hotel Administration

First Committee Member

Cynthia Carruthers, Chair

Second Committee Member

James Busser

Third Committee Member

Jennifer Livengood

Graduate Faculty Representative

Tim Bungum

Number of Pages



Diverse college aged females from a public university in the southwest were asked to participate in an online survey to determine their constraints to physical activity, as well as their current activity level. The groups were compared to establish the differences among the minority groups. Raymore, Crawford, and Godbey’s Hierarchical Model of Constraints was used as a framework when creating the survey. Data analysis showed only one significant difference among the racial/ethnic groups, when looking specifically at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural constraints categories. Hispanic women differed significantly from Caucasian women in their perception of interpersonal constraints on their physical activity. This finding should be further investigated to completely understand the cultural aspects that may lead to interpersonal constraints. No other significant differences among the racial/ethnic groups and their perceptions of physical activity constraints were found. No differences were found among the racial/ethnic groups and their physical activity level. The research suggests physical activity level and constraint differences among ethnic groups may be less prevalent among populations with similar socio-economic status, education, and motivation.


Body image; College students; Constraints; Ethnic attitudes; Exercise; Female; Physical activity; Women college students


Demography, Population, and Ecology | Regional Sociology | Sports Sciences

File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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