Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Kinesiology


Kinesiology and Nutrition Sciences

First Committee Member

Gabriele Wulf, Chair

Second Committee Member

Lawrence Golding

Third Committee Member

John Mercer

Graduate Faculty Representative

Erin Hannon

Number of Pages



Objectives: To determine the effect of self-efficacy manipulation on the movement efficiency, rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and affective state of runners while running on the treadmill at a constant submaximal pace.

Methods: 20 trained male and female runners were randomly assigned to experimental (self-efficacy manipulation) and control groups. Participants first filled out a pre self-efficacy questionnaire and the positive affect negative affect schedule (PANAS), and then completed a 20 minute run on the treadmill running at 75% of their peak treadmill running speed. After 10 minutes, their oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), and RPE was recorded. Participants (n=10) in the experimental group were then given motivational feedback in the form of verbal persuasion, which was recurrent every 2 minutes onwards. No feedback was given to the control participants. VO2, HR, and RPE were recorded for all participants at 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 minutes. A post-test questionnaire measuring the participant's level of self-efficacy and the PANAS was filled out.

Results: Successful manipulation if self-efficacy (p < .05) led to significant interaction between groups and measurement times in VO2 (p < .001), with the control group showing an almost significant (p = .027) increase and the experimental group a significant decrease (p < .01) in VO2 across times. No differences were found in HR or RPE (p > .05). Positive affect tended to increase and negative affect to decrease more from pre- to post-test in the experimental relative to the control group (p = .055).

Conclusions: Verbal persuasion is an effective measure of altering one's self-efficacy which results in greater movement efficiency.


Human beings — Attitude and movement; Movement education; Runners; Running – Psychological aspects; Self-efficacy


Kinesiology | Psychology | Psychology of Movement

File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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