Title

Longspurs and Snow Buntings: Phylogeny and biogeography of a high-latitude clade (Calcarius)

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

2-2003

Publication Title

Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution

Publisher

Elsevier

Volume

26

Issue

2

First page number:

165

Last page number:

175

Abstract

Using complete cytochrome b sequence data, we determined that the genus Calcarius, as presently recognized, is paraphyletic. Calcarius plus Plectrophenax form a highly supported clade composed of two subclades, a “snow bunting” clade comprised of Plectrophenax plus Calcarius mccownii (formerly in the monotypic genus Rhynchophanes), and a “collared” longspur clade of Calcarius lapponicus, ornatus, and pictus. Contrary to conventional thought, Calcarius is not phylogenetically close to either Calamospiza or Emberiza. Unlike these two genera, the taxonomic affinities of Calcarius appear to lie outside of the sparrow (tribe Emberizini) assemblage. Calcarius appears to be a relatively old songbird lineage, originating between 4.2 and 6.2 million years ago. Within Calcarius, pictus and ornatus form a closely related sister pair (2.9% divergent), as do Calcarius nivalis and hyperboreus (0.18% divergent). The group (Calcarius, sensu lato) is inferred to have its origins at relatively high latitudes in the New World.

Keywords

Biogeography; Calcarius; Cladistic analysis; Longspurs; Phylogeny; Snow bunting

Disciplines

Biodiversity | Molecular Genetics | Ornithology | Population Biology

Language

English

Permissions

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Identifier

DOI: http://ezproxy.library.unlv.edu/login?url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-7903(02)00360-3