Title

A rodent model to advance the field treatment of crush muscle injury during earthquakes and other natural disasters

Document Type

Article

Abstract

Approximately 170 earthquakes of 6.0 or higher magnitude occur annually worldwide. Victims often suffer crush muscle injuries involving impaired blood flow to the affected muscle and damage to the muscle fiber membrane. Current rescue efforts are directed toward preventing acute kidney injury (AKI), which develops upon extrication and muscle reperfusion. But field-usable, muscle-specific interventions may promote muscle regeneration and prevent or minimize the pathologic changes of reperfusion. Although current rodent crush injury models involve reperfusion upon removal of the crush stimulus, an analysis of their methodological aspects is needed to ensure adequate simulation of the earthquake-related crush injury. The objectives of this systematic review are to (a) describe rodent crush muscle injury models, (b) discuss the benefits and limitations of these models, and (c) offer a recommendation for animal models that would increase our understanding of muscle recovery processes after an earthquake-induced crush muscle injury. The most commonly used rodent model uses a clamping or pressing crush stimulus directly applied to murine hindlimb muscle. This model has increased our understanding of muscle regeneration but its open approach does not adequately represent the earthquake-related crush injury. The model we recommend for developing field-usable, muscle-specific interventions is a closed approach that involves a nonclamping crush stimulus. Findings from studies employing this recommended model may have greater relevance for developing interventions that lessen the earthquake's devastating impact on individual and community health and quality of life, especially in developing countries.

Disciplines

Animal Diseases | Animals | Animal Structures | Musculoskeletal System | Nursing