Pilot-scale evaluation of ozone and biological activated carbon for trace organic contaminant mitigation and disinfection

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Water Research





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In an effort to validate the use of ozone for contaminant oxidation and disinfection in water reclamation, extensive pilot testing was performed with ozone/H2O2 and biological activated carbon (BAC) at the Reno-Stead Water Reclamation Facility in Reno, Nevada. Three sets of samples were collected over a five-month period of continuous operation, and these samples were analyzed for a suite of trace organic contaminants (TOrCs), total estrogenicity, and several microbial surrogates, including the bacteriophage MS2, total and fecal coliforms, and Bacillus spores. Based on the high degree of microbial inactivation and contaminant destruction, this treatment train appears to be a viable alternative to the standard indirect potable reuse (IPR) configuration (i.e., membrane filtration, reverse osmosis, UV/H2O2, and aquifer injection), particularly for inland applications where brine disposal is an issue. Several issues, including regrowth of coliform bacteria in the BAC process, must be addressed prior to full-scale implementation.


Biological activated carbon (BAC); Carbon; Activated; Disinfection; Endocrine disrupting chemicals in water; Endocrine disrupting compound (EDC); Indirect potable reuse (IPR); Nevada – Reno; Organic water pollutants; Ozone; Pharmaceutical; Pilot-scale; Sewage—Purification; Trace organic contaminant (TOrC); Wastewater; Water – Purification – Ozonization; Water reuse; Water treatment plants


Environmental Engineering | Environmental Health and Protection | Environmental Sciences | Fresh Water Studies | Natural Resources and Conservation | Water Resource Management




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Daniel Gerrity, Sujanie Gamage, Janie C. Holady, Douglas B. Mawhinney, Oscar Quiñones, Rebecca A. Trenholm, Shane A. Snyder, Pilot-scale evaluation of ozone and biological activated carbon for trace organic contaminant mitigation and disinfection, Water Research, Volume 45, Issue 5, February 2011, Pages 2155-2165, ISSN 0043-1354, 10.1016/j.watres.2010.12.031.

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