Wastewater and drinking water treatment technologies

Document Type



Although pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are often considered “emerging contaminants,” researchers have been aware of their ubiquity in water for decades. As early as the 1940s, scientists were aware that certain chemicals had the ability to mimic endogenous estrogens and androgens, and in 1965, Stumm-Zollinger and Fair of Harvard University published the first known report indicating that steroid hormones were not completely eliminated by wastewater treatment. In 1977, researchers from the University of Kansas published the first known report of pharmaceutical discharge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).


Endocrine disrupting chemicals in water; Drinking water – Drug content; Sewage – Purification; Water – Treatment; Water quality


Environmental Engineering | Environmental Health and Protection | Environmental Sciences | Natural Resources and Conservation | Natural Resources Management and Policy | Water Resource Management


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