Development and Evaluation of a Probabilistic Local Search Algorithm for Complex, Dynamic Indoor Construction Sites

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Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering






The nature of an indoor construction site is dynamic and complex. This characteristic becomes even more evident when a multitude of interactions among workers, equipment, and materials exists. To assist various operations of construction, which are dynamic and complex in nature, previous research explored sensing technologies to discover advanced approaches for supporting construction operations. In particular, many researchers focused on investigating the tracking of construction resources over the past several years. Despite the previous research effort in radio-signal-strength-indication-based tracking systems, signal interference such as signal degradations, occlusions, obstructions and multi-path effects created by a complex and dynamic construction environment has not been clearly discussed. Furthermore, the fundamental understanding of issues associated with the signal interference is limited. This research aims to reduce the gap in knowledge of the RSSI-based tracking system when it is used in a highly noisy environment like a dynamic, complex and large indoor construction site. This paper presents the development of a new probabilistic local search (PLS) algorithm using Bluetooth Low Energy network technology. PLS is assessed with respect to accuracy, reliability and robustness. Two conventional positioning methods are subjected to the same tests as a benchmark for comparison. The results indicate that PLS outperforms the other conventional methods when the signal interference is high and performed comparably when the signal interference is minimal.


Bluetooth low energy, Location tracking, Mobile sensing, Indoor localization



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