The Effects of Change Orders on the Cost and Schedule of Rural Road Maintenance Projects.

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Legal Affairs and Dispute Resolution in Engineering and Construction






A comprehensive study of the effects of change orders on cost growth and the relationship of change order values with project size and schedule, particularly in road maintenance projects, has not been performed to date. This study seeks to determine the values of project and activity-level change orders and the correlation with project size and construction intensity. Data for 614 road maintenance projects performed by the Kenya Rural Road Authority were studied, and the results showed that values for project-level change orders increased project cost by 13.07%. The data analysis showed a significant negative correlation between project-level change orders and project size. In addition, these values reduced the construction intensity of road maintenance projects; this relationship was found to be significant. This study found that the project that included the gravel patching activity had the highest change-order frequency. The activity 600-mm culvert installation had the highest change-order values compared with other maintenance activities. This study demonstrated that the values of change orders and the effects of change orders on cost and schedule are similar for new construction projects.



UNLV article access