Modeling Transitional States of Drivers Yielding Right-Of-Way to Pedestrians at Signalized Midblock Crosswalks using a Hazard-Based Multistate Model

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Transportation Research Record

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This study presents an analysis of transitional states of drivers yielding right-of-way to pedestrians at signalized midblock crosswalks. The study utilizes data from twenty signalized midblock crosswalks located in Las Vegas, Nevada, equipped with traffic control signals (TCSs), pedestrians hybrid beacons (PHBs), circular flashing beacons (CFBs), circular rapid flashing beacons (CRFBs), and rectangular rapid flashing beacons (RRFBs). It applies both descriptive analysis and multistate models to explore the variations in transition durations and factors associated with the states’ transition of drivers yielding right-of-way, namely non-yield, multiple-threats, and full yield. The study found that RRFBs are the signal types that have a high frequency of multiple-threats state. The duration to reach full yield varies between 0 s and 318 s; the duration of non-yield to multiple-threats varies between 1 s and 105 s; whereas multiple-threats to full yield duration varies between 1 s and 38 s. The multistate model results show that only the signal type factor has a clear pattern. For this factor, the RRFBs showed low hazard ratios for all three transitions, when compared with CFBs and CRFBs. In various ways, the states’ transition durations were also associated with the number of cross stages, number of lanes, vehicle density, incoming vehicle speeds, annual average daily traffic, and number of pedestrians crossing, as well as their crossing positions. The developed model can be used by engineers and planners to evaluate factors affecting the effectiveness of the crosswalk treatments.


Civil and Environmental Engineering | Transportation Engineering



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