Viral Surrogates in Potable Reuse Applications: Evaluation of a Membrane Bioreactor and Full Advanced Treatment
Journal of Environmental Engineering
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This study employed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to evaluate the occurrence and removal of five microbial surrogates at two water reuse facilities. The surrogates were (1) the 16S rRNA gene; (2) the AllBac assay for Bacteroides; (3) the Bacteroides bacteriophage ϕB124-14ϕB124-14; (4) the Bacteroides bacteriophage ϕcrAssphage; and (5) the pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV). Log removal values (LRVs) were quantified for a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and across a full advanced treatment (FAT) train. PMMoV, ϕB124-14ϕB124-14, and ϕcrAssphageϕcrAssphage were detected in the MBR feed at concentrations of approximately 103 gene copies(gc)/mL103 gene copies(gc)/mL, 105 gc/mL105 gc/mL, and 106 gc/mL106 gc/mL, respectively. Only PMMoV was above the limit of quantification (LoQ) in the MBR filtrate (25±8 gc/mL25±8 gc/mL), resulting in a wide range of viral LRVs: 1.4±0.51.4±0.5 for PMMoV, >3.9±0.3>3.9±0.3 for ϕB124-14ϕB124-14, and >6.2±0.3>6.2±0.3 for ϕcrAssphageϕcrAssphage. All molecular targets were above the LoQ in the biologically treated FAT feed, but only the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was >LoQ>LoQ after ozonation and biological activated carbon (BAC) and in the reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate. The gene was
Membrane Bioreactor (MBR); Full advanced treatment (FAT); Virus; Log removal value (LRV); crAssphage; Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)
Viral Surrogates in Potable Reuse Applications: Evaluation of a Membrane Bioreactor and Full Advanced Treatment.
Journal of Environmental Engineering, 146(2),