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Based on emission factors derived from the AP-42 algorithm, particulate matter from paved roads has been estimated to be a major source of PM10 of geologic origin. This is an empirical formula based on upwind-downwind measurement of PM10 concentrations and is dependent solely on the silt loading of the pavement and the weight of vehicles. A number of upwind-downwind studies conducted in urban areas to validate this algorithm have been generally inconclusive because the PM10 concentration difference between upwind and downwind often is within the measurement uncertainty. In the approach presented here PM10 concentrations were measured directly behind a moving vehicle in order to improve the measurement sensitivity for estimating the emission rates for vehicles on paved roads. Optical sensors were used to measure PM10 concentrations with a time resolution of approximately 10 s. Sensors were mounted in the front of the vehicle and behind it in the well-mixed wake. A special inlet probe was designed to allow isokinetic sampling under varying speed conditions. As a first approximation the emission rate was calculated by multiplying the PM10 concentration difference between the front and rear of a moving vehicle by the frontal area of the vehicle. This technique is also useful for quickly surveying large areas and for investigating hot spots on roadways caused by greater than normal deposition of PM10 forming debris. The method is designated as SCAMPER: System for the Continuous Aerosol Measurement of Particulate Emissions from Roads. Part I describes SCAMPER development and Part II describes a comprehensive field testing of mobile methods.
Particulate; Paved road; Road dust; Emission factors; Fugitive dust; PM10
Environmental Engineering | Transportation Engineering
Fitz, D. R.,
James, D. E.
Real-Time PM10 Emission Rates From Paved Roads by Measurement of Concentrations in the Vehicle's Wake Using On-Board Sensors Part 1. SCAMPER Method Characterization.
Atmospheric Environment, 230
Available for download on Monday, April 12, 2021