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The prevalence of cyanobacteria is increasing in freshwaters due to climate change, eutrophication, and their ability to adapt and thrive in changing environmental conditions. In response to various environmental pressures, they produce toxins known as cyanotoxins, which impair water quality significantly. Prolonged human exposure to cyanotoxins, such as microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxins, and anatoxin through drinking water can cause severe health effects. Conventional water treatment processes are not effective in removing these cyanotoxins in water and advanced water treatment processes are often used instead. Among the advanced water treatment methods, adsorption is advantageous compared to other methods because of its affordability and design simplicity for cyanotoxins removal. This article provides a current review of recent developments in cyanotoxin removal using both conventional and modified adsorbents. Given the different cyanotoxins removal capacities and cost of conventional and modified adsorbents, a future outlook, as well as suggestions are provided to achieve optimal cyanotoxin removal through adsorption.
Cyanotoxin removal; Biochar; Activated carbon; Molecularly imprinted polymers; Nanotubes; Chitosan; Adsorption materials
Water Resource Management
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Kajjumba, G. W.,
Masrura, S. U.,
Marti, E. J.,
Jones-Lepp, T. L.
Recent Advancements in the Removal of Cyanotoxins from Water Using Conventional and Modified Adsorbents—A Contemporary Review.