Title

Spatial and Seasonal Variations of Disinfection Byproduct (DBP) Precursors in Relation With Total Organic Carbon (TOC)

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date

6-7-2021

Publication Title

World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2021

Publisher

American Society of Civil Engineers

First page number:

644

Last page number:

654

Abstract

Disinfection is an essential process for both potable water and wastewater treatment plants. However, disinfection byproducts (DBPs) like trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and nitrosamines (NOAs) are formed when organic matter precursors react with disinfectants such as chlorine, chloramine, and ozone. Formation of DBPs is strongly associated with the type of water source, type of disinfectant, and organic matter concentration, which can have seasonal variation. In this study, water samples were collected from 20 different intra-watershed locations, which included urban runoff (with and without the influence of unsheltered homeless populations), wastewater effluent discharges, and a large, terminal reservoir that serves as the local drinking water source. Samples were collected on dry and rainy days, which represent seasonal samples. DBP formation potential (FP) tests were conducted at consistent pH, contact time, and temperature. THMs, NOAs, and HANs were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The FP tests performed on these water samples revealed that chlorine formed the highest THM concentrations, while THM concentrations were low for the ozone FP test as expected. Chloramine produced the greatest HAN concentrations, with dichloroacetonitrile representing the highest concentration. With respect to sample type, more DBPs were formed at the non-wastewater-impacted runoff sites as compared to the wastewater effluent discharge sites. With respect to TOC levels, rain event samples for all locations had higher TOC concentrations compared to dry sampling days. Similarly, rain event samples showed increased DBP formation; a significant amount of precursors for THMs was found in runoff waters that were influenced by wastewater effluent discharges and unsheltered homeless locations (concentration of total THMs for chlorine FP test was >200 μg/L). Therefore, urban runoff waters should be considered as potential sources of DBP precursors to drinking water source waters, and runoff water is prone to seasonal variation.

Keywords

DBP precursors; DBPs; Disinfection byproducts; Haloacetonitriles; Nitrosamines; Trihalomethanes; Urban runoff; Wastewater

Disciplines

Environmental Engineering

Language

English

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