International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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The formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in natural and treated water from water supply systems is an urgent research area due to the carcinogenic risk they pose. Seasonal effects and pH have captured interest as potential factors affecting THM formation in the water supply and distribution systems. We investigated THM occurrence in the water supply chain, including raw and treated water from water treatment plants (coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ClO2-disinfection processes, and distribution pipelines) in the Chiang Mai municipality, particularly the educational institute area. The effects of two seasons, rainy (September–November 2019) and dry (December 2019–February 2020), acted as surrogates for the water quality profile and THM occurrence. The results showed that humic acid was the main aromatic and organic compound in all the water samples. In the raw water sample, we found a correlation between surrogate organic compounds, including SUVA and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (R2 = 0.9878). Four species of THMs were detected, including chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. Chloroform was the dominant species among the THMs. The highest concentration of total THMs was 189.52 µg/L. The concentration of THMs tended to increase after chlorination when chlorine dioxide and organic compounds reacted in water. The effect of pH on the formation of TTHMs was also indicated during the study. TTHM concentrations trended lower with a pH ≤ 7 than with a pH ≥ 8 during the sampling periods. Finally, in terms of health concerns, the concentration of TTHMs was considered safe for consumption because it was below the standard (
Disinfection byproducts; Distribution networks; Trihalomethanes
Civil and Environmental Engineering
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Trihalomethanes in Water Supply System and Water Distribution Networks.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(17),