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The Songkhla Lake Basin (SLB) located in Southern Thailand, has been increasingly polluted by urban and industrial wastewater, while the lake water has been intensively used. Here, we aimed to investigate cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins in the SLB. Ten cyanobacteria isolates were identified as Microcystis genus based on16S rDNA analysis. All isolates harbored microcystin genes, while five of them carried saxitoxin genes. On day 15 of culturing, the specific growth rate and Chl-a content were 0.2–0.3 per day and 4 µg/mL. The total extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content was 0.37–0.49 µg/mL. The concentration of soluble EPS (sEPS) was 2 times higher than that of bound EPS (bEPS). The protein proportion in both sEPS and bEPS was higher than the carbohydrate proportion. The average of intracellular microcystins (IMCs) was 0.47 pg/cell on day 15 of culturing, while extracellular microcystins (EMCs) were undetectable. The IMCs were dramatically produced at the exponential phase, followed by EMCs release at the late exponential phase. On day 30, the total microcystins (MCs) production reached 2.67 pg/cell. Based on liquid chromatograph-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, three new MCs variants were proposed. This study is the first report of both decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and new MCs congeners synthesized by Microcystis.
Salt Lake Basin; Microcystis; Extracellular polymeric substances; Microcystins; Saxitoxin
Bacteriology | Toxicology
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Microcystis Sp. Co-Producing Microcystin and Saxitoxin from Songkhla Lake Basin, Thailand.