VIP Hosts, Casino Employees, Macao, Problem Gambling


Gaming and Casino Operations Management

Document Type

Original Research Article


This report investigates the understudied group of VIP Hosts in Macao casinos, who cater to high rollers and may be more vulnerable to problem gambling due to their exposure to heavy betting. To comprehensively profile their gambling behaviors and cognitions, we conducted an anonymous online survey using the Chinese Version of South Oaks Gambling Screen (C-SOGS) and the Gambling Fallacies Measure (GFM). Given the difficulty of accessing this population, we employed the snowball sampling technique to recruit eligible participants. Our analysis included data from 41 participants, and the findings revealed high levels of gambling-related cognitive distortions among VIP Hosts. In addition, 83% of the respondents were classified as non-problem gamblers, with 10% of respondents classified as at-risk gamblers, and 7% classified as pathological gamblers. Despite the small sample size, this report offers a preliminary understanding of VIP Hosts’ gambling behaviors in Macao, paving the way for future research.

Funding Sources


Competing Interests

During the past five years, Tiange Xu has received funding from the International Center for Responsible Gaming, Nevada Council on Problem Gambling, and Nevada Department of Public and Behavioral Health. During the past five years, Brett Abarbanel has received funding from GP Consulting, U.S.-Japan Business Council, Wynn Las Vegas, Connecticut Council on Problem Gambling, the States of Nevada and California, Canadian Partnership for Responsible Gambling, iDevelopment and Economic Association, GLG Consulting, MGM Resorts International, ProPress Germany, Sports Betting Alliance, Eilers & Krejcik Gaming, and Caesars Entertainment. Dr. Abarbanel has received reimbursement for travel from Association Cluster Sport International, Kansspelautoriteit, Gamification Group (Finland), British Columbia Lottery Corporation, International Association of Gaming Advisors, GambleAware, Las Vegas Convention and Visitors Authority, Ultimate Media Ventures, Canadian Partnership for Responsible Gambling, IGT Latin America, University of Salford, and National Collegiate Athletic Association (USA). During the time period, Dr. Abarbanel was a member of the Singapore National Council on Problem Gambling International Advisory Panel, for which she was reimbursed for her time. During the past five years, Mehmet Erdem has received funding from EnsemleIQ and Ruckus Networks as well as honoraria from The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. Dr. Erdem serves on the Research Advisory Board of Hospitality Technology Magazine and receives lodging and conference registration in return for his contributions. During the past five years, Bo Bernhard has received funding from the Nevada Department of Health and Human Services, the Nevada Governor’s Office of Economic Development, and on research and advising projects for the Japanese Government, the Saipan Government, Bull Venture Gaming, Caesars Entertainment, Wynn Resorts, IGT, MGM Resorts, Paragon Gaming, Techlink Entertainment, Ocho Gaming, and the Las Vegas Sands Corporation. He has spoken at international conferences sponsored by academic, government, and industry sources, and he has received travel and honoraria for doing so. During the past five years, Shane W. Kraus has received funding from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, International Center for Responsible Gaming, European Science Foundation, National Science Center Poland, Massachusetts Gaming Commission, MGM Resorts International, Center for the Application of Substance Abuse Technologies (University of Nevada, Reno), Taylor and Francis, Springer Nature, and Kindbridge Research Institute.