Review of Scientific Instruments
American Institute of Physics
First page number:
Last page number:
A gas-phase time-of-flight (TOF) apparatus, capable of supporting as many as six electron-TOF analyzers viewing the same interaction region, has been developed to measure energy- and angle-resolved electrons with kinetic energies up to 5 keV. Each analyzer includes a newly designed lens system that can retard electrons to about 2% of their initial kinetic energy without significant loss of transmission; the analyzers can thus achieve a resolving power (E/ΔE) greater than 104 over a wide kinetic-energy range. Such high resolving power is comparable to the photon energy resolution of state-of-the-art synchrotron–radiation beamlines in the soft x-ray range, opening the TOF technique to numerous high-resolution applications. In addition, the angular placement of the analyzers, by design, permits detailed studies of nondipolar angular distribution effects in gas-phase photoemission.
Electron beam focusing; Electron detection; Microchannel plates; Photoelectron spectroscopy; Synchrotron radiation; Time of flight mass spectrometry
Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics | Physical Chemistry
Copyright (1998) American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics.
Whitfield, S. B.,
Lindle, D. W.,
Sellin, I. A.
High-resolution electron time-of-flight apparatus for the soft-x-ray region.
Review of Scientific Instruments, 69(11),