Document Type

Conference Proceeding


Over the past two decades, the dipole approximation has facilitated a basic understanding of the photoionization process in atoms and molecules. Recent experiments on the 1s inner shells of small molecules at relatively low photon energies (⩽ 1000 eV) show strong nondipole effects. They are significant and measurable at energies close to threshold, in conflict with a common assumption that the dipole approximation is valid for photon energies below 1 keV.


Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics | Physical Chemistry


Presented at: The XXI International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions (XXI ICPEAC), Sendai, Japan, July 22-27, 1999

Also presented at: X-ray and Inner-shell Processes: 18th International Conference, Chicago, Ill., August 23-27, 1999


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