Formative Evaluation; American Indian; Tobacco Cessation


Community Health | Health Communication


This study describes a multiphasic approach to the development of a smokeless tobacco cessation program targeted for American Indians (AI) of different tribal nations. The authors gathered formative data from a series of focus groups and interviews to investigate the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of AI and smokeless tobacco (SLT) use. Predominant themes emerged from four major topic areas (SLT use, initiation and barriers, policy, and program development) across both studies. This study further assessed educational materials developed for the cessation program for scientific accuracy, readability, and cultural appropriateness. Program materials were scientifically accurate and culturally appropriate. The average corrected reading grade level was 6.3 using the Fry formula and 7.1 using the SMOG formula. Based on this research, a detailed approach to formative research can be used in combination with input from community members to develop health interventions that address health disparities for a specific population.

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