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Keywords

Public health; disability; women's health; cancer screenings; serious mental illnesses

Disciplines

Public Health | Women's Health

Abstract

Background: Thirty years after the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was passed, promising equal access to health services for people with disabilities and serious mental illness, research on Pap testing continues to uncover health disparities among women with disabilities and women with serious mental illnesses, including those that identify as an ethnic/racial minority.

Aim: The purpose of this paper is to describe and present the literature on the barriers and facilitators women with disabilities and women with serious mental illnesses face with receiving a Pap test using the social ecological model. We also examined the degree to which racial/ethnic minority women were included in these articles.

Method: A scoping review was conducted where the research team searched United States academic literature from 1990 through February 2020 in PubMed, Medline, and CINAHL using general subject headings for disability, mental illness, and Pap testing.

Results: Thirty-two articles met inclusion criteria. More barriers than facilitators were mentioned in articles. Barriers and facilitators are organized into three groups according to social ecological model and include individual (e.g., socioeconomic status, anxiety, education), interpersonal (e.g., family, living environment), and organizational factors (health care provider training, health care system). Participant’s race/ethnicity were often reported but minoritized populations were often not the focus of articles.

Conclusions: More articles discussed the difficulties that women with disabilities and women with serious mental illnesses face with receiving a Pap test than facilitators to Pap testing. Additional research should focus on the intersectionality race/ethnicity and women with disabilities and women with serious mental illnesses in relation to Pap testing.


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