Condom use; Black men; Substance Abusers; Perceived Masculinity; Condom Barriers


Clinical Psychology | Community Psychology | Psychology | Public Health | Social and Behavioral Sciences


Although HIV prevention during substance abuse treatment is ideal, existing HIV risk-reduction interventions are less effective among Black and other ethnic minority substance abusers. The Sexual Health Model (SHM) and the Person, Extended Family and Neighborhood-3 model (PEN-3) both highlight the importance of increasing our understanding of the relationship of sociocultural factors to sexual-decision making as a step towards developing more HIV prevention interventions for ethnic minorities. However, few studies examine sociocultural factors in the sexual decision-making process of Black substance abusing men. This secondary analysis of data collected in an evaluation of Real Men Are Safe (REMAS), a HIV prevention intervention, in the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN) addressed this gap by examining the relation of two specific sociocultural factors (i.e., masculinity and perceived barriers to condom use) to the self-reported sexual behaviors of Black substance abusing men with their main and casual female partners. Analyses of the baseline data of 126 Black men entering substance abuse treatment revealed that the endorsement of both personal and social masculinity predicted more unprotected sexual occasions (USO) with casual partners. The perception that condoms decreased sexual pleasure also predicted higher USO rates with casual partners. However, fewer partner barriers was not associated with USO among casual partners as expected. Neither the endorsement of social or personal masculinity or perceived condom barriers predicted USO with main partners. The findings suggest that interventions that depict condom use as both pleasurable and congruent with Black male perceptions of masculinity may be more effective with Black substance abusing men.