Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome: Prospective Association in Participants With and Without Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) Study

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Nutrition Research



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The inflammatory potential of diet, assessed by Empirical Dietary Inflammatory Pattern (EDIP), may play a crucial role in the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, limited research on this relationship is available. We hypothesized that EDIP is positively associated with MetS and its components. This longitudinal study included 1177 participants (526 with type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM] and 651 without) from the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study. Dietary assessment and anthropometric and biochemical measurements were assessed at baseline and 14-year follow-up. MetS status was defined using the Harmonization criteria. EDIP scores were computed based on a food frequency questionnaire. Generalized linear mixed models were applied and subgroup analyses were performed by diabetes status. Mean age of study participants was 38 years and 48% were male at baseline. EDIP was positively associated with MetS (βT3 versus T1=0.81, P < .01) in T1DM but not in nondiabetic controls. Of the MetS components, low HDL-C and hypertriglyceridemia had positive associations with EDIP in both groups. Individuals with T1DM consumed more pro-inflammatory diets and had a greater risk of developing MetS than those without diabetes. The consumption of processed meat, red meat, high- and low- energy beverages was significantly higher in those with MetS than those without this condition (all P < .05). Reduced consumption of pro-inflammatory foods such as processed meat, red meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, and diet drinks may lower MetS risk in T1DM.


Diet; Generalized linear mixed model; Inflammation; Metabolic syndrome; Type 1 diabetes mellitus


Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition | Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism




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