Pain Management Nursing
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Purpose Nurses and nurse practitioners are highly involved in managing patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Management remains challenging with persistent biomedical risk factors (e.g, high opioid use, Body Mass Index [BMI], chronic widespread pain). Due to pervasive pain care disparities among women, this quantitative pilot study evaluated biomedical risk factors among adult females with CLBP. Findings can assist in targeting risk factors to help address known undertreatment of pain in women. Methods This IRB-approved, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was conducted in a pain center to identify significant associations of relevant biomedical factors with pain/pain-related variables. Self-report questionnaires were gathered for 50 females with CLBP; data were analyzed using SPSS 22. Results Participant mean age was 50; 54% were Black, 34% white, with 10% Hispanics. Average CLBP duration was 11 years, pain intensity was 7.86/10, and number of pain sites (other than low back) was 3.64. Participants used a mean of 58.67 morphine milligram equivalent opioids/day. Average BMI was 32.02. Using Pearson Correlation, amount of opioid use was associated with duration of CLBP (r=.341, p=.018). BMI was correlated with pain intensity (r=.295, p=.038) and sleep (r=.424, p=.002). Number of pain sites was found to have several correlates so multiple regression was conducted to evaluate its predictors after controlling for age, ethnicity, and race. Significant regression equation was found (p=.000) with adjusted R2=.435. Predictors were age (B=-2.838, p=.007), total number of medical conditions (B=2.732, p=.009), total number of pain treatments used (B=2.269, p=.029), and physical function (B=-2.079, p=.044). Conclusion Unhealthy, modifiable risk factors like high opioid use and BMI are necessary targets for healthcare providers to address toward improving pain management particularly among women. Those with other co-existing pain sites are vulnerable. Further research is recommended to address pain care disparities and minimize under treatment of complex conditions like CLBP.
Influence of Biomedical Risk Factors on Chronic Low Back Pain Among Women.
Pain Management Nursing, 20(2),