2434. Proton Pump Inhibitor Use on Efficacy of Fecal Microbiota Transplant Administered by Trans-Oral Routes for Clostridioides Difficile Infection: A Systematic Review and Analysis

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Open Forum Infectious Diseases




Suppl 2

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Background Current guidelines include fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in the management of recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI). However, FMT protocols are often facility dependent, and one variable is whether proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are given during preparation. Theoretically, PPIs reduce acidity and protects the transplanted microbiome for the most potent dose. On the other hand, PPIs have also been shown to negatively alter the microbiome and increase the risk of CDI. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to study PPI use on the efficacy of FMT delivered by the trans-oral route. Methods We searched PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science through December 16th, 2018 using variations of keywords “fecal microbiota transplant” and “Clostridium difficile infection” with 4210 results. Two independent authors reviewed and excluded studies with unrelated topics, abstracts, case reports, or a low level of evidence. Studies with data on trans-oral FMT, PPI use, and the success rate were included. Final review yielded 11 studies including randomized controlled, case–control, cohort, retrospective and prospective trials. The primary outcome was the rate of FMT failure, defined as recurrence of symptoms with positive CDI testing at follow-up. Results Out of 233 included patients, 131 received a PPI per FMT protocol resulting in 27 cases of treatment failure. There were 23 cases of recurrence out of 102 patients who did not receive pre-FMT PPI. The primary outcome occurred in 20.6% in the group with PPI use vs. 22.6% in the group without (RR 0.91; CI 0.56 - 1.50). Limitations include the lack of studies directly comparing outcomes with respect to PPI use, and inability to control possible confounders such as chronic PPI use, amount of stool transplanted, and pre-FMT antibiotics. Conclusion We did not find a significant difference in efficacy between FMT protocols with regard to PPI use. It is possible that the theoretical benefit from increased survival of transplanted microbiota is offset by negative effects associated with PPIs. We suggest that routine use of PPIs in FMT be reconsidered in the absence of clear benefit. Further investigation is needed to optimize protocols for safety and efficacy.


Antibiotics; Clostridium difficile infections; Disclosure; Drug administration routes; Feces; Follow-up; Medline; Safety; Treatment failure; Infection; Guidelines; Proton pump inhibitors; Cochrane collaboration; Fecal transplantantation; Microbiome; Embase; Primary outcome measure


Gastroenterology | Infectious Disease



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