Trends and Associated Factors of Use of Opioid, Heroin, and Cannabis Among Patients for Emergency Department Visits in Nevada: 2009-2017
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To examine trends and contributing factors of opioid, heroin, and cannabis-associated emergency department (ED) visits in Nevada. The 2009 to 2017 Nevada State ED database (n = 7,950,554 ED visits) were used. Use of opioid, heroin, and cannabis, respectively, was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, 9th & 10th Revisions. Three multivariable models, one for each of the 3 dependent variables, were conducted. Independent variables included year, insurance status, race/ethnicity, use of other substance, and mental health conditions. The number of individuals with opioid, heroin, cannabis-associated ED visits increased 3%, 10%, and 23% annually from 2009 to 2015, particularly among 21 to 29 age group, females, and African Americans. Use of other substance (odds ratio [OR] = 3.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.84, 3.99; reference - no use of other substance), mental health conditions (OR = 2.48; 95% CI = 2.43, 2.53; reference – without mental health conditions), Medicaid (OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.38, 1.44; reference – non-Medicaid), Medicare (OR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.39, 1.49; reference – non-Medicare) and uninsured patients (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.49, 1.56; reference - insured) were predictors of all three substance-associated ED visits. With a steady increase in trends of opioid, heroin, and cannabis-associated ED visits in recent years, the main contributing factors include patient sociodemographic factors, mental health conditions, and use of other substances.
Cannibis; Emergency department; Heroin; Opioid; Substance use
Medicine and Health Sciences | Mental and Social Health | Public Health | Substance Abuse and Addiction
Kim, P. C.,
Cochran, C. R.,
Shen, J. J.
Trends and Associated Factors of Use of Opioid, Heroin, and Cannabis Among Patients for Emergency Department Visits in Nevada: 2009-2017.