Fontan-Associated Liver Disease and Total Cavopulmonary Anatomical Flow Effectors

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Cardiac Surgery

First page number:


Last page number:



Objective: We investigated a relationship between a composite index comprised of Fontan-circuit anatomical features and hepatic fibrosis scores from biopsy. Methods: We identified living extracardiac Fontan patients, ≥7 years old and ≥5 but <20 years postoperative, that underwent cardiac catheterization and transvenous liver biopsy between March 2012 and September 2020. We divided patients into anatomical groups and applied a risk score to each patient. We compared average anatomical risk scores with average hepatic total fibrosis scores by group. Results: We identified 111 patients that met inclusion criteria. After excluding four patients, we assigned 107 to one of 12 anatomical variant groups (n ≥ 3). For the 107, the average age at liver biopsy was 14 ± 6 years old. Of the 107, 105 (98%) were New York Heart Association Class 1. We found average anatomical risk scores by group correlated with average total fibrosis scores by group (R = 0.8; p =.005). An average Fontan duration to biopsy of 10 ± 1 years was similar for all 12 anatomical groups. We found no other clinical variables, laboratory, or hemodynamic values that trended with anatomical risk scores or hepatic total fibrosis scores. Conclusions: In a cohort of relatively young, stable extracardiac Fontan patients, average composite anatomical risk scores strongly correlated with average hepatic total fibrosis scores by anatomical group. These findings suggest that some anatomical variants in extracardiac Fontan patients are associated with higher Fontan-associated liver disease (FALD)-related hepatic total fibrosis scores than others, despite similar Fontan durations.


Composite index; Extracardiac fontan; Hepatic fibrosis; Liver biopsy


Diseases | Pulmonology



UNLV article access

Search your library