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Gd3+ forms a strongly colored complex with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol (PAR) in aqueous solutions. We characterized the Gd3+-PAR complex in order to use it as a probe of Gd3+ speciation in the presence of environmentally relevant ligands. The formation of the Gd3+-PAR complex was investigated from pH 5 to 8 in the presence of excess PAR. The absorbance of the Gd3+-PAR complex dramatically increased from pH 5 to 8 and application of the method of continuous variation indicates that the complex was primarily 1:2 Gd(PAR)2 at pH 8. Stability constants for Gd3+ with other ligands can be quantified by competitive displacement of the PAR ligand. To establish the viability of this approach, we measured the stability constants between Gd3+ and several organic acids and carbonate. Our measurements show reasonable agreement with the literature values. We used the competitive displacement approach to establish that humic acids can competitively displace PAR from the Gd(PAR)2 complex.
Gadolinium; Competitive displacement; 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol; Organic acids; Humic acids
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Investigation of the Interaction of Gadolinium with Several Organic Ligands and Humic Acid by Ligand Competition Using 4-(2-Pyridylazo)-Resorcinol (PAR).