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International Journal of Molecular Sciences





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In eukaryotic cells, DNA replication licensing is precisely regulated to ensure that the initiation of genomic DNA replication in S phase occurs once and only once for each mitotic cell division. A key regulatory mechanism by which DNA re-replication is suppressed is the S phase-dependent proteolysis of Cdt1, an essential replication protein for licensing DNA replication origins by loading the Mcm2-7 replication helicase for DNA duplication in S phase. Cdt1 degradation is mediated by CRL4 ubiquitin E3 ligase, which further requires Cdt1 binding to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) through a PIP box domain in Cdt1 during DNA synthesis. Recent studies found that Cdt2, the specific subunit of CRL4 ubiquitin E3 ligase that targets Cdt1 for degradation, also contains an evolutionarily conserved PIP box-like domain that mediates the interaction with PCNA. These findings suggest that the initiation and elongation of DNA replication or DNA damage-induced repair synthesis provide a novel mechanism by which Cdt1 and CRL4 are both recruited onto the trimeric PCNA clamp encircling the replicating DNA strands to promote the interaction between Cdt1 and CRL4 . The proximity of PCNA-bound Cdt1 to CRL4 facilitates the destruction of Cdt1 in response to DNA damage or after DNA replication initiation to prevent DNA re-replication in the cell cycle. CRL4 ubiquitin E3 ligase may also regulate the degradation of other PIP box-containing proteins, such as CDK inhibitor p21 and histone methylase Set8, to regulate DNA replication licensing, cell cycle progression, DNA repair, and genome stability by directly interacting with PCNA during DNA replication and repair synthesis. Cdt2 Cdt2 Cdt2 Cdt2 Cdt2 Cdt2


Cdt1; Cdt2; CRL4 Cdt2; DNA re-replication; DNA repair synthesis; DNA replication; Genome instability; PCNA; Replication licensing



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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