The association between distance to water pipes and water bodies positive for anopheline mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in the urban community of Malindi, Kenya

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Journal of Vector Ecology





First page number:


Last page number:



The increasing risk of mosquito-borne diseases in African urban environments has been partly attributed to failed planning and resource underdevelopment. Though engineered systems may reduce mosquito proliferation, there are few studies describing this relationship. This study investigates how engineered systems such as roads and piped water systems affect the odds of anopheline immatures (i.e., larvae and pupae) occurring in water bodies located in Malindi, Kenya. Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Giles), An. arabiensis (Patton), and An. merus (Dointz) were identified in urban Malindi, with Anopheles gambiae s.s. being the predominant species identified. The Breslow-Day test was used to explore interactions among independent variables. Logistic regression was used to test whether water bodies positive for anopheline immatures are associated with engineered systems, while controlling for potential confounding and interaction effects associated with urban water body characteristics. Water bodies more than 100 m from water pipes were 13 times more likely to have anopheline immatures present, compared to water bodies that were less than 100 m from water pipes (OR = 13.54, 95% CI: 3.15 – 58.23). Roads were not significantly associated with water bodies positive for anopheline immatures. Statistical interaction was detected between water body substrate type and distance to water pipes. This study provides insight into how water pipes influence the distribution of water bodies positive with immature anophelines in urban environments.


Anopheles gambiae s.l. immatures; Kenya – Malindi; Mosquitoes as carriers of disease; Piped water systems; Roads; Urban ecology (Sociology); Urban environment; Water – Distribution; Water-pipes


Civil Engineering | Environmental Engineering | Environmental Sciences | Infrastructure | Public Health | Water Resource Management




Use Find in Your Library, contact the author, or use interlibrary loan to garner a copy of the article. Publisher copyright policy allows author to archive post-print (author’s final manuscript). When post-print is available or publisher policy changes, the article will be deposited

UNLV article access

Search your library