Trends in Utilization of Human Papillomavirus Vaccines and the Incidence of Malignant Cervical Cancer in the U.S. Population: A Secondary Analysis

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Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection, and HPV types 16 and 18 are responsible for approximately 66% of all U.S. cervical cancer cases in women. The quadrivalent HPV vaccine was licensed in mid-2006, and it was designed to target and protect against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. The aim of this study is to examine the utilization rate of the HPV vaccine, and the trends and incidence rate of malignant cervical cancer across the United States. Methods: This study utilized data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) and the National Immunization Survey's (NIS) teenage datasets across select years. For the SEER survey, the modification for confidence intervals by Tiwari et al., 2006, was utilized to obtain the incidence rate per 100,000, so that it could be age-adjusted for the 2000 U.S. standard population, as noted in the data provided by the U.S. Census. The dates examined started in the year 2000 and ended in 2017. For the NIS-Teen survey, the public-use data file was used, and a point estimate (%), with a 95% confidence interval, was performed to examine the trends in HPV vaccine utilization across the U.S. adolescent female population from the years 2007 to 2019. Results: This study found that the rate of diagnosis had been falling over the nearly two decades examined in this study. Implications: This study would support current efforts to encourage the utilization of HPV vaccines that are currently in the vaccination schedule rotation, and to illustrate the importance of completing all doses of the three-step series.


HPV; Adolescents; Cervical cancer; Vaccinations


Cancer Biology | Immunology and Infectious Disease

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