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Background and Aims: Cases of Clostridioides difficile infection have been rising among the pediatric and adolescent population. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has emerged as an alternative therapy for recurrent C. difficile infection. We aim to perform the first systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the safety and efficacy of fecal microbiota transplantation for C. difficile infection in children and adolescents. Methods: A literature search was performed using variations of the keywords “pediatrics”, “C. difficile infection”, and “fecal microbiota transplantation” in PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane, and Google Scholar from inception to 30 June 2022. The resulting 575 articles were independently screened by three authors. Fourteen studies that satisfied the eligibility criteria were included in the meta-analysis. Results: The pooled success rate of FMT in the overall cohort was 86% (95% confidence interval: 77–95%; p < 0.001; I2 = 70%). There were 38 serious adverse events in 36 patients with a pooled rate of 2.0% (95% confidence interval: 0.0–3.0%; p = 0.1; I2 = 0.0%) and 47 adverse events in 45 patients with a pooled rate of 15% (95% confidence interval: 5.0–25.0%; p = 0.02; I2 = 54.0%). There was no death associated with FMT. Conclusions: FMT was concluded to be an effective and safe therapy in pediatric and adolescent patients with C. difficile infection. Underlying comorbidities may impede the efficacy. A rigorous screening process of the donors is recommended prior to embarking on FMT. There is no universal and cost-effective way to monitor the long-term outcomes of FMT. While promising, metagenomic sequencing may not be available in settings with limited resources. Robust data from randomized clinical trials is warranted.
Pediatrics; Clostridioides difficile infection; Fecal microbiota transplantation; Diarrhea
Medicine and Health Sciences
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Tun, K. M.,
Hong, A. S.
Efficacy and Safety of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infection among Pediatric Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10122450