Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Committee Member

Gabriele Wulf

Number of Pages



It has been demonstrated that for motor tasks, an external focus of attention can yield better results than an internal focus of attention. To be more specific, focusing on the effect of the movements seems to be more beneficial to performance and learning than focusing on the movements themselves (for a review, see Wulf & Prinz, 2001). To explain this phenomenon, Wulf, McNevin, and Shea (2001) proposed that an internal focus of attention is less effective because concentrating on the movements interferes with the motor system's attempt to naturally self-organize, the "constrained-action hypothesis." The purpose of this study was to find neurophysiological and/or mechanical evidence of this hypothesis using expert and novice American football field goal kickers (place kickers). Four experts and 12 novices (never kicked before) participated; they kicked seven kicks under control (no focus instructions), internal (focus on the part of the foot that would contact the ball), and external (focus on the part of the ball that would be contacted) focus conditions. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).


Activation; Attentional; Effects; Expertise; Focus; Function; Kinematics; Muscle; Patterns

Controlled Subject

Kinesiology; Physiology

File Format


File Size

1740.8 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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