Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Hotel Administration

First Committee Member

James A. Busser

Number of Pages



Branding's extension into tourism destination management is expanDing However, most studies to date have focused at the conceptual exploration level or expansion of image-level theory. This study examined empirical information on building the destination brand model through a scale purification process, ensuring its reliability and validity. The customer-based brand equity measurement model from the general marketing literature was applied in a destination context. The proposed model was tested with an online survey sample of Las Vegas and Atlantic City visitors because both destinations are in a similar destination brand category. Findings show that although the proposed model showed a good fit for the total sample, Las Vegas sample, and Atlantic City sample respectively, the relationship among the brand dimensions was inconsistent with theory. However, destination brand image shows a positive effect on both destination brand value and destination brand loyalty across the samples. In addition destination brand image was found to be the most significant predictor for destination brand loyalty across the samples; As a result, an alternative model was developed that has a good fit across the samples. Combining destination brand image with destination brand quality created a new latent construct, destination brand experiences. Interestingly, path relationships among destination brand awareness, destination brand experiences, destination brand value, and destination brand loyalty were similar. However, invariance tests of structural coefficients between the Las Vegas and Atlantic City samples indicated that variances were different across the destination; The findings indicate that the customer-based brand equity measurement model drawn from general marketing can be applied to a destination context. However, specific scale items that are appropriate for each destination should be developed. In addition, a destination brand model is difficult to generalize across destinations because of their unique and complex characteristics. This study showed that a destination brand is a multi-dimensional concept and provided a starting point as to how to empirically measure a destination brand. However, limitations in this study suggest that the issue of how destination brands can be measured is currently difficult to determine, while becoming an increasingly important part of destination management. An extension of this research is needed to validate the findings in the future.


Application; Based; Brand; Brand Equity; Customers; Customer-based; Destination; Destination Brands; Equity; Model; Multidimensional

Controlled Subject

Marketing; Social work education

File Format


File Size

3512.32 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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