Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Higher Education Leadership

First Committee Member

Mimi Wolverton

Number of Pages



People learn and adopt cultural values through socialization. "Voices from Two Sides of the Atlantic" is a multiple-case study about the influence of national socialization on women's leadership experiences. The main research question of the study was: Does national enculturation impact how women lead, and if so, how is it reflected in participants' responses?;This study examined leadership experiences of three Finnish and three American women. It investigated how the participants associate their values with their leadership experience and how they perceive the social context in which they grew up influences leadership. The theoretical framework of the study was based on European social psychology, including Hofstede's theories on national culture, Moscovici's theory on social representation, and Tajfel's theories on socialization and social identity. I also used American theories, such as Gilligan's theory on women's psychological development and Klenke's theory about the role of the context in women's leadership. I used a qualitative multiple-case study research design and I developed an interview protocol with open-ended questions, which reflect the organizational framework of the study. I matched participants (i.e., Finnish-American) to analyze the results and I used across-case analysis to draw conclusions. The report includes a synthesis of research findings for each pair; The results demonstrate that: (1) National enculturation does not impact leadership execution, but it provides a framework for life and how participants perceived culture. Finnish women defined their culture in terms of equality and American participants emphasized individuality, rights, and responsibilities. (2) Finnish women gave kudos to their culture and societal systems that support women's leadership. In contrast, American women felt that such support is not in place for women in the United States. Also, encouraging family and upbringing builds self-confidence that helps women to deal with gendered messages. (3) Family support, such as an encouraging husband or partner, is important for women who want to sustain leadership. (4) In this study, women's personal and leadership values are the same regarding of national upbringing. (5) Women lead with integrity, communication, competence, and by creating a pool of competencies within their staff. Their leadership orientation is focused on people.


Atlantic; Case; Culture; Finland; Leadership; Multiple Sides; Study; Two; United States; Voices; Women; Women Leaders

Controlled Subject

Education, Higher; Women's studies; Sociology

File Format


File Size

5447.68 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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