Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Psychology

First Committee Member

Kent Crippen

Second Committee Member

Randall Boone

Number of Pages



The current research investigated the effects of differing feedback protocols in a multimedia learning environment to determine if changes would occur over time in goal orientation, self-regulation, self-efficacy or achievement. Subjects from an traditional undergraduate chemistry course were assigned to either a norm-referenced or self-referenced feedback group. Goal orientation and self-efficacy were measured via self-report surveys pre-post instruction, self-regulation was measured as the cumulative number of times each subject opened a worked example/self-explanation prompt while engaged in weekly web-based quizzes, and achievement was measured using final semester course grades. Perceptions of the learning environment were also probed as a potential mediating variable via self-report surveys by using a median split to assign subjects to either a class-task group, where learners believed that the instructor valued effort more than ability or a class-ability group, where learners believed that the instructor valued innate ability more than effort; Results revealed that subjects did not significantly change their goal orientation type or magnitude as a result of the differing feedback protocols, even with the addition of learning environment perception as a potential mediating variable. Overall, subjects made significant decreases along the mastery approach and performance approach goal orientation subscales. While this was not anticipated, the results are consistent with other recent research within this context (Senko & Harackiewicz, 2005). Subjects also did not demonstrate significant differences in self-regulation, although a trend did emerge with those from the norm-referenced feedback group with a class-task perception of the learning environment less likely to use worked examples. Subjects from this group also demonstrated the greatest gains in self-efficacy over the course of the semester; however these changes failed to meet the criterion for statistical significance and these differences did not lead to any notable differences in achievement. While it remains unclear as to why these subjects used worked examples less, the increase in self-efficacy is contrary to other studies along this line of research (Crippen & Earl, 2007). However, increases in self-efficacy from subjects with a class-task learning environment perception are supported in the literature (Midgley, Maehr, Hicks, Urdan, & Roeser, 1995); Recommendations for future research within this context such as authenticating subjects' perceptions of their assigned treatment condition, introducing additional feedback protocols such as a combined, choice, or control condition and building in a better gauge to track the time and context of potential changes in goal orientation, self-regulation, and self-efficacy are also discussed.


Effects; Environment; Feedback; Goal Orientation; Learning; Online Learning; Perceptions; Protocol; Regulated; Science; Self; Science; Self-regulated Learning; Worked Examples

Controlled Subject

Educational psychology; Educational technology; Education, Higher; Science--Study and teaching

File Format


File Size

1904.64 KB

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




If you are the rightful copyright holder of this dissertation or thesis and wish to have the full text removed from Digital Scholarship@UNLV, please submit a request to and include clear identification of the work, preferably with URL.


IN COPYRIGHT. For more information about this rights statement, please visit