Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Master of Science in Nursing (MSN)



First Committee Member

Lori Candela

Second Committee Member

Michele Clark

Third Committee Member

Patricia Alpert

Fourth Committee Member

Sheniz Moonie

Number of Pages



Health care providers are members of a helping profession and need to provide quality care to all members of society. As a result of current and projected demographic changes within the United States (U.S.), health care professionals are faced with the challenges of providing culturally competent care and fulfilling the role as the "helping profession." In the past 10 years, minority populations have increased in the U.S. For example, the African American population experienced an approximate 12.3% increase, and the Hispanic population increased by 43%. Just as it is necessary for health care professionals to respond to the increase in the geriatric population as a result of the Baby Boomer generation, it is crucial to address the needs of an increasingly culturally diverse population in the U.S. Preparing to care for a culturally diverse population begins during the teaching and learning process in the nursing curriculum. This study intended to identify the methods in which nursing programs are integrating cultural concepts in their plan of study.

Josepha Campinha-Bacote's model titled "The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Health Care Services" was used as the theoretical framework to guide this study. Campinha-Bacote has studied transcultural nursing and has added to the current body of nursing knowledge with regard to incorporating cultural concepts in the nursing curriculum. This model requires health care professionals to see themselves as becoming culturally competent rather than being culturally competent and involves the integration of cultural awareness, cultural skill, cultural knowledge, cultural encounters, and cultural desire.

An electronic survey was sent using Survey Monkey to 298 schools in the Northeast and Southern regions of the United States. The survey was sent on January 19, 2012 and remained open for 20 days. Once the survey closed, statistical analyses were conducted using frequencies and cross-tabluations, and the findings were analyzed and reported. The results of the study indicated the following: (a) a low number of schools incorporating a stand-alone nursing course in the curriculum; (b) differences among various teaching methods among regions and program types; (c) differences among the incorporation of Campinha-Bacote's (2007b) cultural constructs in the curriculum; and (d) differences among various evaluation methods among regions and program types.

Implications for nursing education include the following: (a) programs should make an effort to incorporate one-to-one instruction and simulation when planning teaching encounters in order to adequately address all learning domains; (b) when planning curriculum structure, programs should consider using a theoretical framework such as Campinha-Bacote's (2007b) "The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Health Care Service" in order to address student learning needs thoroughly; (c) nursing faculty members need to be creative in their teaching and make a conscious effort to continually address cultural learning needs of their students; and (d) concept mapping should be used to determine where and how many times cultural concepts are addressed in the curriculum.

Recommendations for future research include: (a) determining which teaching methods are most effective in promoting cultural competence; (b) determining the use and effectiveness of curriculum methods that incorporate Campinha-Bacote's (2007b) cultural constructs; (c) determining which evaluation methods are most effective in determining student ability to care for others of another culture; and (d) learning about faculty comfort and preparedness to teach culture-related nursing content. It is also recommended that the relationship between a stand-alone nursing course versus and integrated course and cultural competence be investigated.


Baccalaureate; Cultural competence; Cultural competency; Culture; Curriculum; Nursing; Nursing – Cross-cultural studies; Nursing schools – Curricula; Transcultural nursing – Study and teaching


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Medical Education | Nursing

File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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