Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy in Nursing



First Committee Member

Patricia T. Alpert

Second Committee Member

Nancy N. Menzel

Third Committee Member

Alona Angosta

Fourth Committee Member

Merrill Landers

Number of Pages



Sixty percent of U.S. registered nurses (RNs) age 45-60 have not participated in retirement planning. Further, in the next 10 to 15 years, this cohort of 1 million RNs will reach retirement age. Previous RN retirement studies have focused on RN retirement outlook, RN economic preparation for retirement, or retirement intent. However, no contemporary research explores the psychological influences in RN retirement preparation; a concern since retirement benefits have been suggested as a retention strategy to improve patient care outcomes, satisfaction, and safety by reducing RN turnover. The purpose of the SAVER study was to identify predictors of future time perspective (FTP), retirement goal clarity (RGC), self-rated knowledge of financial planning for retirement (SKFPR), and retirement planning activity level (RPAL) in employed U.S. RNs.

The SAVER study utilized a cross sectional design, conducted via an online survey administered by Manwaring Web Solutions. A convenience sample of 706 employed RNs completed the SAVER study. The online survey was comprised of a researcher-designed questionnaire, and Hershey, Jacobs-Lawson, McArdle, and Hamagami's Retirement Planning Preparation Questionnaire was used to assess retirement preparation.

The average participant was female, 48 years old, Caucasian, not of Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, and married. Professionally, the average participant was initially licensed as a RN in 1993, currently working full time, held a bachelor's degree, worked 17 years full time during her RN career, 4 years part time or per diem, and spent 2 years out of the nursing profession. In addition, the following were the most commonly occurring characteristics of the sample; an annual household income of $50,000 - $74,999, complete vesting in a retirement plan with a current employer, currently employed in an inpatient setting, with job satisfaction and health ratings both an "8" on a 1-10 scale (with 0 being "highly dissatisfied" and 10 being "highly satisfied" in job satisfaction, and 0 being "poor health" and 10 being "excellent health" in health).

Multiple regression hierarchical analyses identified predictors of FTP (health/race), RGC (health/income/nurse specialty/race/vesting), SKFPR (gender/health/income/vesting), and RPAL (gender/health/income/part time work/vesting). The only variable to make a statistically significant contribution for all four criteria was health (in FTP [p < 0.001], in RGC [p < 0.001], in SKFPR [p < 0.001], and in RPAL [p < 0.001]). The final models accounted for 9% of the variance in FTP, 20% of the variance in RCG, 22% of the variance in SKFPR, and 20% of the variance in RPAL.

The SAVER study indicated retirement preparation remains a key issue for RNs. The SAVER study found the better a person ranks their health status positively predicted retirement preparation, which is new knowledge. RNs preparing for retirement should be cognizant of the interrelationship between finances and health. Administration and nursing leadership should consider incorporating health-related interventions as part of retirement planning.


Finance; Personal; Nurses; Retirement--Planning; Saving and investment



File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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