Award Date

May 2015

Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Curriculum & Instruction

First Committee Member

Christine Clark

Second Committee Member

Marilyn McKinney

Third Committee Member

Shaoan Zhang

Fourth Committee Member

LeAnn Putney

Number of Pages



The purpose of this sequential transformative study was to elucidate the negative experiences of teachers with performance evaluations and to juxtapose the intended use of current popular teacher evaluation reform movements to the evident implementation. One may quickly assume that negative experiences with evaluation are a result of unsatisfactory teaching practices. However, this may not accurately explain the negative experiences. This study focused on the negative experience of teacher evaluation to provide a broader understanding of the impact of new evaluation policy reform on student achievement and teacher quality. Five data sources were analyzed: PAR policy, a teacher survey, district PAR data, individual interviews, and one group interview. Five teachers, bound by one school district, participated in the interviews.

With a paucity of previous research focused on the negative impacts of teacher evaluation, this study addressed the following questions: (1) How does the PAR teacher evaluation process negatively impact teachers? (2) What, if any, parallel traits exist among those teachers who had negative experiences with the PAR evaluation system? (3) How does the intended use of the PAR teacher evaluation process compare to the evident use of PAR? Data were collected and analyzed using the Complementary Analysis Research Matrix Application (CARMA) as an orienting tool to juxtapose data collected in interviews, surveys, and public data sources. CARMA aligned with the overarching theoretical framework of critical multiculturalism by systematically collecting data and analyzing it in an organized approach that hoped to empower participants to share their experiences. The study aligned with critical multiculturalism by giving voice to a marginalized group and empowering underrepresented people.

Data revealed dissonance among intent and evident use of the evaluation policy. A disproportionate number of African Americans, women over the age of 55, and teachers higher on the pay scale were referred to PAR. Additionally, data indicated that through the PAR evaluation system, teachers experienced negative health impacts such as, high levels of stress, depression, weight gain, despondence, insomnia, hostility toward family, deteriorating relationships, high blood pressure, and overall distraction. Furthermore, vague policy language was suggested as the impetus for misuse, abuse, and biased implementation at the local level. This study suggests that policy makers and school district officials take heed of multiple perspectives and consider the negative impacts of teacher evaluation reform. Evaluation systems that prioritize teacher learning over accountability are integral to successfully improving student achievement.


Critical Multiculturalism; Disparate Impact Discrimination; Negative experiences of teachers; Peer Assistance and Review; Peer evaluation; Teacher evaluation


Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education | Education | Education Policy | Teacher Education and Professional Development

File Format


Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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