Award Date


Degree Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)


Physical Therapy

Advisor 1

Kai-Yu Ho

First Committee Member

Merrill Landers

Second Committee Member

Jing Nong Liang

Number of Pages



Study Design: Reliability of clinical measurement. Objectives: To establish a standardized ultrasonographic approach to quantify anterior translation of the mandibular condyle during mouth opening by examining the reliability of imaging acquisition and processing. Background: Restricted mouth opening is a common limitation in individuals with temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD), however the arthrokinematics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) during mouth opening have not been studied thoroughly. Furthermore, how anterior translation of the mandibular condyle contributes to mouth opening remains unclear. Methods: Twenty-eight subjects without TMD participated. During day 1 of data collection, all subjects performed maximal mouth opening while an examiner placed a linear transducer overlying the TMJ and the zygomatic arch to record dynamic images. On day 2 of data collection, the same procedure was performed on 6 subjects that participated in day 1 of data collection. To establish inter- and intra- rater reliability of imaging processing, 3 examiners measured condylar translations on 2 days with 7 days apart. To determine intra-rater reliability of imaging acquisition, images obtained from 2 days of data collection were analyzed. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and standard errors of measurement (SEMs) were used to evaluate reliability. A linear regression model was used to assess the association between anterior condylar translations and mouth opening. Results: Our data revealed excellent ICCs and small SEMs for imaging acquisition and processing. A significant, linear model was found to describe the relationship between condylar anterior translations and mouth opening.


Temporomandibular joint; Anterior translation; Mouth opening; Reliability


Physical Therapy

File Format


File Size

14 Kb

Degree Grantor

University of Nevada, Las Vegas




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